Short Synopsis: Beagles didn’t show a big salivary cortisol increase if they were shocked for touching a fake rabbit, but they did if they were shocked for not responding to a “here” command or shocked at random. Results remained the same when trials were repeated 4 weeks later.
Authors:E. Schalkea, J. Stichnotha, S. Otta, R. Jones-Baadeb
Publication: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Volume 105, Issue 4, July 2007, Pages 369-380
Publication Date: July 2007
Applies To: E-collar training
Sample Size: 14 beagles, split into 3 groups
Limitations/Drawbacks: Small sample size.