Short Synopsis: Dogs trained with positive reinforcement were more attentive to owners, while dogs trained with negative reinforcement displayed lowered body postures and stress signals. The study compared dogs trained at two different obedience schools in a novel environment.
Authors: Stéphanie Deldalle and Florence Gaunet
Publication: Journal of Veterinary Behavior, Volume 9, Issue 2, March–April 2014, Pages 58-65
Publication Date: March/April 2014
Applies To: training methodology, human/canine relationship
Sample Size: 50 dogs total; 24 in the R- group and 26 in the R+ group
Limitations/Drawbacks: Compared two obedience schools, would have to extrapolate results.